This course explores the common roots of ancient Rabbinic Judaism and early Christianity in the first five centuries CE. We study both the theological similarities between the two movements and the ways in which they developed into distinctly different religious traditions. Topics to be covered include: reward and punishment; heaven and hell; immortality of the soul; resurrection; martyrdom; and the messiah. The Jewish background of Jesus and Paul is discussed also. While the course concentrates primarily on the ancient period, we also briefly discuss the strained relationship between Judaism and Christianity in the medieval world and where that relationship is today.