From ancient times to present, Jews have believed in a Messiah and a Messianic age. One question that has troubled Judaism from its very beginning to the present day is "Why does God permit suffering?" "Will the Judge of all the earth not act justly?" asks Abraham in the Book of Genesis, and from biblical times to the Holocaust and today's headlines, the question has reverberated throughout Jewish tradition. By studying a variety of biblical, rabbinic, philosophical, and mystical texts, some major Jewish responses to this question.